Top 50 Manual Testing Interview Questions & Answers


1.What is Software Testing?
Software testing is the process of evaluating a system to check if it satisfies its business requirements. It
measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes like correctness, completeness,
usability, performance etc. Basically, it is used for ensuring the quality of software to the stakeholders of
the application.

2.What are Verification And Validation?
Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they
meet the specified requirements for that phase.
Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to
determine whether it specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
 Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
 Verification takes place before validation.
 Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation
evaluates product.
 Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection ,where as in Validation
testing of actual product.
 Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where
as in Validation actual product is output.

3.What Is Difference Between Retesting And Regression Testing?
Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly where as regression is perform to
check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes
in the code.
Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed where as in regression is not be always
specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.
Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier where as regression concern
with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.
Retesting has higher priority over regression.

4.What Are The Key Elements Of A Test Plan?
A test plan contains the following main points.
Testing objectives.
 Test scope.
 Testing the frame.
 The environment
 Reason for testing
 The criteria for entrance and exit
 Deliverables
 Risk factors
Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of the different set of test data can also find large and
complex bugs.

5.What are Quality Assurance and Quality Control?
 Quality Assurance: Quality Assurance involves in process-oriented activities. It ensures the
prevention of defects in the process used to make Software Application. So the defects don’t
arise when the Software Application is being developed.
 Quality Control: Quality Control involves product-oriented activities. It executes the program or
code to identify the defects in the Software Application.

6.What is Static Testing?
Static Testing involves in reviewing the documents to identify the defects in the early stages of SDLC.

7.What is Dynamic Testing?
Dynamic testing involves the execution of code. It validates the output with the expected outcome.

8.What is SDLC
Software Development Life Cycle refers to all the activities that are performed during software
development, including – requirement analysis, designing, implementation, testing, deployment and
maintenance phases.

9.What are the different types of testing?
Testing can broadly be defined into two types-
Functional testing – Functional testing involves validating the functional specifications of the system.
Non Functional testing – Nonfunctional testing includes testing the non-functional requirements of the
system like performance, security, scalability, portability, endurance etc.

10.What Is Requirement Traceability Matrix?
Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document which records the mapping between the highlevel requirements and the test cases in the form of a table.
That’s how it ensures that the Test Plan covers all the requirements and links to their latest version.

11.What Is The Difference Between Master Test Plan And Test Plan?
The difference between Master Plan and Test Plan can be described using following points.
1. Master Test Plan contains all the test scenarios and risks prone areas of the application. Whereas,
Test Plan document contains test cases corresponding to test scenarios.
2. Master Test Plan captures each and every test to be run during the overall development of
application whereas test plan describes the scope, approach, resources and schedule of performing the
3. MTP includes test scenarios to be executed in all the phases of testing that run during the complete
life cycle of the application development. Whereas, a separate Test Plan exists for each phase of testing
like Unit, Functional, and System which contains the test cases related to that type only.
4. Only for big projects, we need a Master Test Plan which requires execution in all phases of testing.
However, preparing a basic Test Plan is enough for small projects.

12.What Are The Different Types Of Software Testing?
Following is the list of various testing types used by manual testers.
 Unit testing
 Integration testing
 Regression testing
 Shakeout testing
 Smoke testing
 Functional testing
 Performance testing
 Load testing
 stress testing
 Endurance testing
 White box and Black box testing
 Alpha and Beta testing
 System testing

13.What is White Box Testing?
White Box Testing is also called as Glass Box, Clear Box, and Structural Testing. It is based on applications
internal code structure. In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system, as well as
programming skills, are used to design test cases. This testing usually was done at the unit level.

14.What is Black Box Testing?
Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the
software under test without looking at the internal code structure. This can be applied to every level of
software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing.

15.What is Positive and Negative Testing?
Positive Testing: It is to determine what system supposed to do. It helps to check whether the
application is justifying the requirements or not.
Negative Testing:It is to determine what system not supposed to do. It helps to find the defects from the

16.What Is Alpha And Beta Testing?
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over
to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that
the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team
perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs
beta testing.

17.What Is Agile Testing?
Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good
quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is
started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We
put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in
reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid
the defects coming from the end user.

18.Explain Bug Life Cycle.
The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug. He will check whether it
is a valid defect. If not a valid bug is rejected then the status is REJECTED.
If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When a bug is not part of the current release.
Such defects are POSTPONED
Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status
When a bug is assigned to the developer. During this stage, bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS
Once a code is fixed. A defect is assigned a status FIXED
Next, the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED
If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life

19.Explain User Acceptance Testing.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end users on the applications before accepting the
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for
the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: is performed by the end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or
working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The
public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified
requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

20.What is Test Scenario?
Test Scenario gives the idea of what we have to test. Test Scenario is like a high-level test case.

21.What is Test Case?
Test cases are the set of positive and negative executable steps of a test scenario which has a set of preconditions, test data, expected result, post-conditions and actual results.

22.What is Unit Testing?
Unit Testing is also called as Module Testing or Component Testing. It is done to check whether the
individual unit or module of the source code is working properly. It is done by the developers in
developer’s environment.

  1. What is Integration Testing?
    Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units. Integration
    testing is done by three ways. Big Bang Approach, Top Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach

24.What is System Testing?
Testing the fully integrated application to evaluate the system’s compliance with its specified
requirements is called System Testing AKA End to End testing. Verifying the completed system to ensure
that the application works as intended or not.

25.What is Big Bang Approach?
Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module
Top down and bottom up are carried out by using dummy modules known as Stubs and Drivers. These
Stubs and Drivers are used to stand-in for missing components to simulate data communication
between modules.

26.What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?
An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case

27.When should configuration management procedures be implemented?
During test planning.

28.A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such
as virus from malicious outsiders?
Security Testing

29.Testing where in we subject the target of the test , to varying workloads to measure and evaluate
the performance behaviours and ability of the target and of the test to continue to function properly
under these different workloads?
Load Testing

30.Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction
between integrated components is?
Integration Level Testing

31.What Will You Do When A Bug Turns Up During Testing?
When a bug shows up, we can follow the below steps.
 Run more tests to make sure that the problem has a clear description.
 Run a few more tests to ensure that the same problem doesn’t exist with different inputs.
 Once we are sure of the full scope of the bug, then we can add details and report it.

32.How Comes The Severity And Priority Relate To Each Other?
 Severity –Represents the gravity/depth of the bug.
 Priority –Specifies which bug should get fixed first.
 Severity –Describes the application point of view.
 Priority –Defines the user’s point of view.

33.What is risk-based testing?
Risk-based testing is the term used for an approach to creating Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing
tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level.
Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

34.Give an example of Low priority-Low severity, Low priority-High severity, High priority-Low
severity, High priority-High severity defects.
 Low priority-Low severity– A spelling mistake in a page not frequently navigated by users.
 Low priority-High severity– Application crashing in some very corner case.
 High priority-Low severity – Slight change in logo color or spelling mistake in company name.
 High priority-High severity – Issue with login functionality.

35.What are the phases of a formal review ?
In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process
consists of six main steps:
 Planning
 Kick-off
 Preparation
 Review meeting
 Rework
 Follow-up.

36.When do we prepare RTM (Requirement traceability matrix), is it before test case designing or
after test case designing?
The would be before. Requirements should already be traceable from Review activities since you should
have traceability in the Test Plan already. This question also would depend on the organisation. If the
organisation do test after development started then requirements must be already traceable to their
source. To make life simpler use a tool to manage requirements.

37.What Are Different Types Of Severity?
The severity of a bug can be low, medium or high depending on the context.
 User Interface Defect – Low
 Boundary Related Defects – Medium
 Error Handling Defects – Medium
 Calculation Defects – High
 Misinterpreted Data – High
 Hardware Failures – High
 Compatibility Issues – High
 Control Flow Defects – High
 Load Conditions (Memory leakages under load testing) – High

38.What Should Be Done After A Bug Is Found?
After finding the bug the first step is bug to be locked in bug report. Then this bug needs to be
communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the bug is fixes by the developer, fixes
should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check
that fixes didn’t create problems elsewhere.

39.What Are The Advantages Of Waterfall Model?
The advantages of the waterfall model are:
 Simple to implement and required fewer amounts of resources.
 After every phase output is generate.
 Help in methods of analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.
 Preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule and cost.
 Systematic and sequential model.
 Proper documentation of the project

39.What Is Rapid Application Development Model (rad)?
The RAD model Rapid Application development (RAD) is incremental software development process
models that focus on the development of the project in very short time. It is enhanced version of
Waterfall model. It is proposed when requirements and solutions can be made independently system or
software components, which is developed by different teams. After these smaller system components
are developed, they are integrated to produce the large software system solution.

40.What Is Exploratory Testing?
Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring testing
test explore the application on the basis on his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the
application previously. He explores the application like an end user and try to use it. While using the
application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.

41.Can You Explain V Model In Manual Testing?
V model: it is enhanced version of waterfall model where each level of the development lifecycle is
verified before moving to next level. In this testing starts at the very beginning. By testing we mean
verification by means of reviews and inspections, static testing. Each level of the development life –
cycle has a corresponding test plan. A test plan is developed to prepare for the testing of the products of
that phase. Be developing the test plans, we can also define the expected results for testing of the
products for that level as well as defining the entry and exit criteria for each level.

42.What Is Cyclomatic Complexity?
Cyclomatic complexity is used to measure the complexity of the software using the control flow graph of
the software. It is a graphical representation, consisting of following:
NODE: statement of the program is taken as node of the graph.
Edges: the flow of command is denoted by edges. Edges are used to connect two node , this show flow
of control from one node to other node in the program.
Using this node and edges we calculate the complexity of the program. This determines the minimum
number of inputs you need to test always to execute the program.

43.When Is Used Decision Table Testing?
Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or
cause-effect combinations. In a decision table the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the
same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to
define the outputs produced.

44.In which order should tests be run?
The most important tests first

45.The later in the development life cycle a fault is discovered, the more expensive it is to fix. why?
The fault has been built into more documentation,code,tests, etc

46.What is Coverage measurement?
It is a partial measure of test thoroughness.

47.What is Boundary value testing?
Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes.

48.What is Fault Masking ?
Error condition hiding another error condition

49.What does COTS represent?
Commercial Off The Shelf.

50.The purpose of wich is allow specific tests to be carried out on a system or network that resembles
as closely as possible the environment where the item under test will be used upon release?
Test Environment

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