Top 100 DevOps Interview Questions & Answers

Interview Questions & Answers


  1. What is DevOps?
    It is a newly emerging term in the IT field, which is nothing but a practice that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of both software developers and other information technology (IT) professionals. It focuses on delivering software product faster and lowering the failure rate of releases.

  2. What are the core operations of DevOps in terms of development and Infrastructure?
    The core operations of DevOps are:
    Application development, code developing, code coverage, unit testing, packaging, deployment with infrastructure, provisioning, configuration, orchestration, and deployment.

  3. What is Version control and it uses?
    It is a system that records changes to a file or set of files over time so that you can recall specific versions later.
    Uses of Version control
    • Revert files back to a previous state.
    • Revert the entire project back to a previous state.
    • Compare changes over time.
    • See who last modified something that might be causing a problem

  4. List out some popular tools for DevOps?
    Some of the popular tools for DevOps are
    • Jenkins
    • Nagios
    • Monit
    • ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana)
    • io
    • Jenkins
    • Docker
    • Ansible
    • Git
    • Collectd/Collectl

  5. What is Git?
    Git is a Distributed Version Control system (DVCS). It can track changes to a file and allows you to revert back to any particular change.

  6. Mention at what instance have you used the SSH?
    I have used SSH to log into a remote machine and work on the command line. Beside this, I have also used it to tunnel into the system in order to facilitate secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network.

  7. Explain how DevOps is helpful to developers?
    DevOps can be helpful to developers to fix the bug and implement new features quickly. It also helps for clearer communication between the team members.

  8. Mention what are the types of Http requests?
    The types of Http requests are
    • GET
    • HEAD
    • PUT
    • POST
    • PATCH
    • DELETE
    • TRACE

  9. What Are Vagrant And Its Uses?
    Vagrant used the virtual box as the hypervisor for virtual environments and in the current scenario, it is also supporting the KVM. Kernel-based Virtual Machine
    A vagrant is a tool that can create and manage environments for testing and developing software.

  10. List The Agile Methodology Of DevOps?
    • DevOps is a process
    • Agile is same as DevOps.
    • A separate group for are framed.
    • It is problem-solving.
    • Developers managing production
    • DevOps is development-driven release management

  11. What Are The Advantages Of DevOps?
    Technical benefits:
    • Continuous software delivery
    • Less complex problems to fix
    • Faster resolution of problems
    Business benefits:
    • Faster delivery of features
    • More stable operating environments
    • More time available to add value (rather than fix/maintain)

  12. Differentiate between Asset Management and Configuration Management
    Asset Management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.
    Configuration Management is the process of planning for, identifying, controlling and verifying the Configurations Items (CIs) within a service, recording their status and, in support of Change Management, assessing the potential IT impact of changing those items.

  13. What is Puppet?
    It is a Configuration Management tool which is used to automate administration tasks

  14. Name the popular scripting language of DevOps?

  15. Describe two-factor authentication?
    Two-factor authentication is a security process in which the user provides two means of identification from separate categories of credentials; one is typically a physical token, such as a card, and the other is typically something memorized, such as a security code.

  16. What’s a PTR in DNS?
    Pointer records are used to map a network interface (IP) to a hostname. These are primarily used for reverse DNS. Reverse DNS is set up very similar to how normal (forward) DNS is set up. When you delegate the DNS forward, the owner of the domain tells the registrar to let your domain use specific name servers.

  17. What are the containers?
    Containers are a form of lightweight virtualization, heavier than ‘chroot’ but lighter than ‘hypervisors’. They provide isolation among processes while using the same kernel as the host machine, and ‘cgroups’ functionality within a kernel.

  18. In Git how do you revert a commit that has already been pushed and made public?
    It can be done in two ways:
    • By removing or fixing the bad file in a new commit and pushing it to the remote repository. Once the necessary changes to the file have been made, commit it to the remote repository. Use: git commit -m “commit message”
    • By creating a new commit that undoes all changes that were made in the bad commit. To do this, use command: git revert <name of bad commit>

  19. Why we need DevOps?
    Companies are now facing the need for delivering more and faster and better applications to meet the ever more pressing demands of conscious users to reduce the ” Time To Market “. DevOps often helps deployment to happen very fast.

  20. What is agile development and Scrum?
    Agile development used as an alternative to Waterfall development practice. In Agile, the development process is more iterative and incremental, there are more testing and feedback at every stage of development as opposed to only the last stage in Waterfall.
    Scrum is used to manage complex software and product development, using iterative and incremental practices. Scrum has three roles ie product owner, scrum master, and team.

  21. What is Kubernetes? Explain
    It is a massively scalable tool for managing containers, made by Google. It is used internally on huge deployments and because of that, it is maybe the best option for production use of containers. It supports self-healing by restating non-responsive containers, it packs containers in a way that they take fewer resources and has many other great features.

  22. What is the purpose of CM tools and which one you have used?
    Configuration Management tools’ purpose is to automatize deployment and configuration of software on big number of servers. Most CM tools usually use agent architecture which means that every machine being manged needs to have an agent installed. My favorite tool is one that uses agentless architecture – Ansible. It only requires SSH and Python. And if the raw module is being used, not even Python is required because it can run raw bash commands. Other available and popular CM tools are Puppet, Chef, SaltStack.

  23. What is the role of a configuration management tool in DevOps?
    Automation plays an essential role in server configuration management. For that purpose we use CM tools, they store information about versions and builds of the software and testware and provide the traceability between software and testware.

  24. What are the easiest ways to build a small cloud?
    VMfest is one one of the options for making IaaS cloud from VirtualBox VMs in no time. If you want a lightweight PaaS there is Dokku which is basically a bash script that makes PaaS out of Dokku containers.

  25. What are the main advantages of Git over CVS?
    The biggest advantage is that Git is distributed while CVS is centralized. Changes in CVS are per file, while changes (commits) in Git they always refer to the whole project. Git offers much more tools than CVS.

  26. What is Continuous Testing?
    Continuous Testing is the process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline to obtain immediate feedback on the business risks associated with the latest build.

  27. What are the key elements of continuous testing?
    Risk assessment, policy analysis, requirements traceability, advanced analysis, test optimization, and service virtualization

  28. What is Continuous Integration?
    Continuous Integration is a very important component of the Agile process. Typically developers work on features or user stories within a sprint and commit their changes to the version control repository.
    Once the code is committed, then the entire work of developers is well integrated and the build is performed on a regular basis based on every check-in or schedule. Hence, Continuous Integration as a practice forces the developer to integrate their changes with the others so as to get an early feedback.

  29. Explain Continuous Delivery
    Continuous Delivery is an extension of Continuous Integration which primarily helps to get the features which the developers are developing out to the end users as soon as possible. During this process, it goes through various stages of QA, Staging etc., and then for delivery to the PRODUCTION system.

  30. Explain Continuous Monitoring.
    As the application is developed and deployed, we do need to monitor its performance. Monitoring is also very important as it might help to uncover the defects which might not have been detected earlier

  31. Whether your video card can run Unity how would you know?
    When you use command – /usr/lib/nux/ unity_support_test-p, it will give detailed output about Unity’s requirements and if they are met, then your video card can run unity.

  32. What is the quickest way to open an Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory?
    • To open Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory you can use a custom keyboard shortcut.
    • To do that, in the command field of a new custom keyboard, type genome – terminal – – working – directory = /path/to/dir.

  33. Explain how you create launchers on the desktop in Ubuntu?
    • To create launchers on the desktop in Ubuntu you can use
    • ALT+F2 then type “ gnome-desktop-item-edit –create-new~/desktop “, it will launch the old GUI dialog and create a launcher on your desktop

  34. What is Ansible?
    Ansible is an open source automation platform. It is very, very simple to set up and yet powerful. Ansible can help you with configuration management, application deployment, task automation. It can also do IT orchestration, where you have to run tasks in sequence and create a chain of events which must happen on several different servers or devices. An example is if you have a group of web servers behind a load balancer. Ansible can upgrade the web servers one at a time and while upgrading it can remove the current web server from the load balancer and disable it in your Nagios monitoring system. So, in short, you can handle complex tasks with a tool which is easy to use.

  1. What are Design Patterns?
    In simple terms, Design Patterns are the solution to problems faced by developers- they represent the best practices that are used by developers. Design Patterns help the inexperienced developer to learn easily and quickly. Design Patterns have standard terminologies addressing specific scenario.
    There are mainly 3 types of Design Patterns:
    • Creational: addresses design problems.
    • Structural: simplifies relationships between objects.
    • Behavioral: simplifies how objects interact with each other.

  2. How do you create a new repository in git?
    Create a project directory and run “git init” under that directory. It creates a .git directory in the project directory.

  3. How do you squash the last N commits into a single commit?
    There are two options to squash the last N commits into a single commit. Include both of the below-mentioned options in your answer:
    If you want to write the new commit message from scratch use the following command
    git reset –soft HEAD~N &&
    git commit
    If you want to start editing the new commit message with a concatenation of the existing commit messages then you need to extract those messages and pass them to Git commit for that I will use
    git reset –soft HEAD~N &&
    git commit –edit -m”$(git log –format=%B –reverse .HEAD@{N})”

  4. Explain how can create a backup and copy files in Jenkins?
    To create a backup, all you need to do is to periodically back up your JENKINS_HOME directory. This contains all of your build jobs configurations, your slave node configurations, and your build history. To create a back-up of your Jenkins setup, just copy this directory. You can also copy a job directory to clone or replicate a job or rename the directory.

  5. How will you secure Jenkins?
    The way I secure Jenkins is mentioned below. If you have any other way of doing it, please mention it in the comments section below:
    • Ensure global security is on.
    • Ensure that Jenkins is integrated with my company’s user directory with the appropriate plugin.
    • Ensure that the matrix/Project matrix is enabled to fine tune access.
    • Automate the process of setting rights/privileges in Jenkins with the custom version controlled script.
    • Limit physical access to Jenkins data/folders.
    • Periodically run security audits on same.

  6. What is Automation Testing?
    Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves the use of separate testing tools which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

  7. What are playbooks in Ansible?
    Playbooks are Ansible’s configuration, deployment, and orchestration language. They can describe a policy you want your remote systems to enforce or a set of steps in a general IT process. Playbooks are designed to be human-readable and are developed in a basic text language.
    At a basic level, playbooks can be used to manage configurations of and deployments to remote machines.

  8. When should I use the external_stage option?
    Set -external_stage using WebLogic.Deployer if you want to stage the application yourself, and prefer to copy it to its target by your own means.

  9. What is Nagios?
    Nagios is one of the monitoring tools. It is used for Continuous monitoring of systems, applications, services, and business processes etc in a DevOps culture. In the event of a failure, Nagios can alert technical staff of the problem, allowing them to begin remediation processes before outages affect business processes, end-users, or customers.

  10. What is meant by saying Nagios is Object Oriented?
    One of the features of Nagios is object configuration format in that you can create object definitions that inherit properties from other object definitions and hence the name. This simplifies and clarifies relationships between various components.”

  11. What is Docker container?
    Docker containers include the application and all of its dependencies but share the kernel with other containers, running as isolated processes in user space on the host operating system. Docker containers are not tied to any specific infrastructure: they run on any computer, on any infrastructure, and in any cloud.

  12. How to create a Docker container?
    To create Docker container by using the below command:
    docker run -t -i <image name> <command name>
    This command will create and start the container.
    You should also add If you want to check the list of all running container with status on a host use the below command:
    docker ps –a

  13. What types of testing are needed?
    Software teams will often look for the “fair weather” path to system completion; that is, they start from an assumption that software will usually work and only occasionally fail. I believe to practice defensive programming in a pragmatic way, which often means assuming that the code will fail and planning for
    those failures. I try to incorporate a unit test strategy, use of test harnesses, early load testing; network simulation, A/B and multivariate testing etc.

  14. What is the one most important thing DevOps helps do?
    The most important thing DevOps helps to do is to get the changes into production as quickly as possible while minimizing risks in software quality assurance and compliance. That is the primary objective of DevOps. However, there are many other positive side-effects to DevOps. For example, clearer communication and better working relationships between teams which creates a less stressful working environment.

  15. What are the advantages of NoSQL database over RDBMS?
    The advantages are:
    • Less need for ETL
    • Support for unstructured text
    • Ability to handle change over time
    • Breadth of functionality
    • Ability to scale horizontally
    • Support for multiple data structures
    • Choice of vendors

  16. What is an MX record in DNS?
    MX records are mail exchange records used for determining the priority of email servers for a domain. The lowest priority email server is the first destination for email. If the lowest priority email server is unavailable, mail will be sent to the higher priority email servers.

  17. Explain how “Infrastructure of code” is processed or executed in AWS?
    In AWS,
    • The code for infrastructure will be in simple JSON format
    • This templates can be deployed on AWS and then managed as stacks
    • This JSON code will be organized into files called templates
    • Later the CloudFormation service will do the Creating, deleting, updating, etc. operation in the stack

  18. What is the quickest way to open an Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory?
    • To open Ubuntu terminal in a particular directory you can use a custom keyboard shortcut.
    • To do that, in the command field of a new custom keyboard, type genome – terminal – – working – directory = /path/to/dir.

  19. Name a few branching strategies used in DevOps
    A few branching strategies to be used are-
    • Feature Branching
    • Task Branching
    • Release Branching

  20. What are the benefits if using Git?
    The benefits of using Git are-
    • Flexible Workflow
    • Fast
    • Data Integrity
    • Free Collaboration

  21. What is a Chef Repository and how it works?
    A repository is a storehouse in Chef that can be used to accommodate cookbooks, environments, roles, or data bags etc. The Chef repository further is synchronized with GIT, a version control system to make its performance even better.

  22. Why are SSL certificates used in Chef?
    How can you sure that the right data is accessed by Chef server and the Chef client? To make sure, you need to establish a secure SSL connection and continue your work.

  23. Highlight the main difference between a Git pull and Git fetch?
    Git pull is the command that pulls out the new modifications or the commits from an exacting branch of your central repository. Whereas Git fetches is the command that pulls every new commit out from the required branch and then stores it in a fresh branch of your local Git repository.

  24. What is DevOps Toolchain?
    DevOps Toolchain is a combination of tools that help in development, deployment, and management of Apps throughout the development lifecycle as organized by the organization that uses DevOps.

  25. What platforms does Docker run on?
    Docker runs on following platforms:
    Specific instructions are available for most Linux distributions, including Ubuntu, RHEL, SuSE, and many others.
    Any distribution running version 3.10+ of the Linux kernel
    Microsoft Windows:
    • Windows Server 2016
    • Windows 10
    • Cloud:
    • Amazon EC2
    • Microsoft Azure
    • Google Compute Engine
    • Rackspace

  26. What are essential skills needed to become a DevOps engineer?
    • Good knowledge in system administration
    • Experience in Virtualization
    • Good developing expertise
    • Excellent Scripting knowledge
    • Knowledge of Chef in the automation tool
    • Real-time Cloud operations experience

  27. What is DevOps engineer’s duty with regards to Agile development?
    DevOps engineer works very closely with Agile development teams to ensure they have an environment necessary to support functions such as automated testing, Continuous Integration, and Continuous Delivery. DevOps engineer must be in constant contact with the developers and make all required parts of environment work seamlessly.

  28. What is Docker Hub?
    Docker Hub is a cloud-based registry. We can use Docker Hub to link code repositories. We can even build images and store them in Docker Hub. It also provides links to Docker Cloud to deploy the images to our hosts.

  29. What is State Stalking in Nagios?
    State Stalking is a very useful feature. Though all the users do not use it all the time, it is very helpful when we want to investigate an issue.
    In State Stalking, we can enable stalking on a host. Nagios will monitor the state of the host very carefully and it will log any changes in the state.

  30. How does Kubernetes provide high availability of applications in a Cluster?
    In a Kubernetes cluster, there is a Deployment Controller. This controller monitors the instances created by Kubernetes in a cluster. Once a node or the machine hosting the node goes down, Deployment
    Controller will replace the node. It is a self-healing mechanism in Kubernetes to provide high availability of applications.

  31. Define ALM (Application Life Cycle Management)?
    ALM refers to Application Life Cycle Management, which used for design, testing, and development of the software application. It covers full lifecycle management in the software development. Developers get perfect support on the process at any stage of development easily, which also offer unique conception. With few processes, experts undergo the lifecycle management.

  32. What is a Node in Chef?
    A Node represents a server and is typically a virtual machine, container instance, or physical server – basically any computer resource in your infrastructure that is managed by Chef.

  33. What is the role of Starter Kit in Chef?
    Starter Kit will create the necessary configuration files like chef directory, knife.rb, the ORGANIZATION-validator.pem, and USER.pem files etc. with the correct information that is required to interact with the Chef server.

  34. What Is The Difference Between Raid 0 And Raid 1?
    RAID 1 offers redundancy through mirroring, i.e., data is written identically to two drives. RAID 0 offers no redundancy and instead uses striping, i.e., data is split across all the drives. This means RAID 0 offers no fault tolerance; if any of the constituent drives fails, the RAID unit fails.

  35. Explain how you can update Memcached when data changes?
    When data changes you can update Memcached by Clearing the Cache proactively: Clearing the cache when an insert or update is made
    Resetting the Cache: It is similar to the first method but rather than just deleting the keys and waiting for the next request for the data to refresh the cache, reset the values after the insert or update.

  36. How does HTTP work?
    The HTTP protocol works in a client and server model like most other protocols. A web browser using which a request is initiated is called as a client and a web server software which responds to that request is called a server. World Wide Web Consortium and the Internet Engineering Task Force are two important spokes in the standardization of the HTTP protocol.

  37. What Are The Benefits Of The NoSQL?
    • The non-relational and schema-less data model
    • Low latency and high performance
    • Highly scalable

  38. How We Can Make Sure New Service Is Ready For The Products Launched?
    • Backup System
    • Recovery plans
    • Load Balancing
    • Monitoring
    • Centralized logging

  39. What is Git bisect?
    Git bisect is used to find the commit that introduced a bug by using binary search.

  40. Mention what is the difference between Memcache and Memcached?
    Memcache: It is an extension that allows you to work through handy object-oriented (OOP’s) and procedural interfaces. It is designed to reduce database load in dynamic web applications.
    Memcached: It is an extension that uses lib Memcached library to provide API for communicating with Memcached servers. It is used to increase the dynamic web applications by alleviating database load. It is the latest API.

  1. List the major difference between the Agile and DevOps?
    • Agile is about software development
    • DevOps is about software deployment and management.
    • DevOps does not replace Agile or Lean. It does this by killing waste, removing handovers, and streamlining deployments to allow faster and more continuous deployments to PRODUCTION.

  2. How is Chef used as a CM tool?
    The chef is considered to be one of the preferred industry-wide CM tools. Facebook migrated its infrastructure and backend IT to the Chef platform, for example. Explain how Chef helps you to avoid delays by automating processes. The scripts are written in Ruby. It can integrate with cloud-based platforms and configure new systems. It provides many libraries for infrastructure development that can later be deployed within a software. Its centralized management system, one Chef server is enough to be used as the center for deploying various policies.

  3. Name three important DevOps KPIs.
    There are many KPIs that can be used to measure DevOps success. Three of the most common DevOps KPIs are:
    • meantime to failure recovery
    • deployment frequency
    • percentage of failed deployments

  4. Mention some important features of Memcached?
    Important features of Memcached includes
    CAS Tokens: A CAS token is attached to an object retrieved from the cache. You can use that token to save your updated object.
    Callbacks: It simplifies the code
    getDelayed: It reduces the delay time of your script which is waiting for results to come back from the server
    Binary protocol: You can use binary protocol instead of ASCII with the newer client
    Igbinary: Previously, the client always used to do serialization of the value with complex data, but with Memcached, you can use igbinary option

  5. When the server gets shut down does data stored in Memcached is still available?
    Data stored in Memcached is not durable so if the server is shut down or restarted then all the data stored in Memcached is deleted.

  6. Discuss your experience in building bridges between IT Ops, QA, and development?
    DevOps is all about effective communication and collaboration. I’ve been able to deal with production issues from the development and operations sides, effectively straddling the two worlds. I’m less interested in finding blame or playing the hero than I am with ensuring that all of the moving parts come together.

  7. Explain the typical roles involved in DevOps.
    DevOps Architect – The leader who is responsible for the entire DevOps process.
    DevOps Engineer – The person should be experienced with Agile, SCM or Version Control, CI /CD and setting up automation tools for the same, Infrastructure automation and Database management skills. Any developer who has skills in coding or scripting and has the acumen to get into deployment or system admin can qualify for the role of a DevOps engineer.

  8. Why are configuration management processes and tools important?
    The best way to answer this question is to first talk about the multiple software builds, versions, releases and revisions that are being developed for each software or testware. The next step is then to explain why it is essential to store & maintain data and track the latest development builds and simplified
    troubleshooting. Also, mention the role of tools Puppet, Ansible, and Chef in automating software deployment and configuration on several servers.

  9. What is the most important thing DevOps helps us achieve?
    One of the important things DevOps help the users to achieve is getting the changes into production quickly while ensuring the risks are kept to a minimum in software quality assurance and compliance. You can also enumerate on the other positive effects of DevOps, for instance, better communications and working relations between Ops and Dev team which ensures delivery of good quality software leading to better customer satisfaction

  10. What are the advantages of Test Driven Development?
    As TDD first starts with the test case, the quality of code is increased as there will be one or more test cases for all the functionalities.
    • Refactoring code can be done confidently.
    • Eventually, the complete code in your application is well tested; since it is constructed to address all the test cases.
    • The code turns more modular and flexible as a developer is addressing all the test cases by coding in smaller units.

  11. What are the foundational pillars of DevOps Testing?
    The primary pillars of DevOps testing are:
    • Embrace testing early and ensure production readiness at all times.
    • Utilize proven technologies and patterns.
    • Apply appropriate rigor.

  12. What is git stash drop?
    In order to remove stashed items, git stash drop command is used. By default, this command deletes the last stashed items. We can also delete a particular stash item. Git stash list command lists all the stashed items. We can select the stash item to be removed and pass its name to stash drop command.

  13. How do you create a new repository in git?
    Create a project directory and run “git init” under that directory. It creates a .git directory in the project directory.

  14. What is a Node in Chef?
    A Node represents a server and is typically a virtual machine, container instance, or physical server – basically, any compute resource in your infrastructure that is managed by Chef.

  15. What information do you need in order to bootstrap in Chef?
    • Your node’s hostname or public IP address.
    • A username and password you can log on to your node with.
    • Alternatively, you can use key-based authentication instead of providing a username and password.

  16. What is Resilience Test?
    Tests that ensure recovery without data and functionality loss after a failure are called Resiliency tests. Here are the examples of Resilience test tools.
    Hystrix: An open source tool, which has latency and fault tolerance libraries, designed to isolate points of access to remote systems and services.
    Chaos Monkey: Developed by Netflix to randomly disable parts of the system and simulate production failures.

  17. What is git rebase?
    After creating a personal branch and adding and modifying files; what if the master branch is updated and your branch becomes stale? In such scenarios, one can use git rebase. Git rebases command e will replay the changes made in your local branch at the tip of master, allowing conflicts to be resolved in the process.

  18. How can one know the branches that are already merged into the master branch?
    • git branch –merged master lists branches merged into master.
    • git branch –no-merged lists branches that have not been merged.

  19. What is the difference between resource allocation and resource provisioning?
    Resource allocation is the process of reservation that demarcates a quantity of a resource for a tenant’s use.
    Resource provision is the process of activation of a bundle of the allocated quantity to bear the tenant’s workload.
    Immediately after allocation, all the quantity of a resource is available. Provision removes a quantity of a resource from the available set. De-provision returns a quantity of a resource to the available set. At any time:
    Allocated quantity = Available quantity + Provisioned quantity

  20. Classify Cloud Platforms by category
    Cloud Computing software can be classified as:
    Software as a Service or SaaS – is peace of software that runs over the network on a remote server and has only user interface exposed to users, usually in a web browser. For example
    Infrastructure as a Service or IaaS – is a cloud environment that exposes VM to the user to use an entire OS or container where you could install anything you would install on your server. Example of this would be OpenStack, AWS, Eucalyptus.
    Platform as a Service or PaaS – allows users to deploy their own application on the preinstalled platform, usually framework of application server and suite of developer tools. Examples for this would be Heroku.

  21. What is the use of Ansible?
    Ansible can be used to deploy many software applications to many nodes using a single command. This requires a little technical know-how on behalf of the user. In IT infrastructures, Ansibles are used to manage and deploy software applications to remote nodes.

  22. Explain different modules in Ansible.
    There are two types of modules in Ansible namely core modules and extra modules. Modules in Ansible are idempotent and the clients can perform the same result by using modules in Ansible for the operation to be idempotent.
    Core modules– The Ansible team gives more importance to these modules over extra modules. Core modules are always shipped with Ansible software.
    Extra modules– These modules are maintained by Ansible community and are reusable but receive a lower rate of response to issues. These modules are bundled with Ansible but can be separately available in future.

  23. Give a comparison between Ansible and puppet.
    A comparative study between Ansible and puppet is given below:
    Ansible: Ansible is very simple to set up. It is a simple technology which is written in YAML language. It is based on an agent-less architecture which doesn’t require nodes to locally install daemons. It facilitates automated workflow for continuous and hassle-free delivery. Ansible doesn’t support windows. It comes with good GUI and CLI accepts command in almost every language.
    Puppet: Puppet is a complex technology as compared with Ansible. It is written in Ruby language. It works on easy installation and facilitates visualization and reporting. It is not based on agentless architecture and unlike Ansible, puppet supports for almost all major operating systems. The prerequisite for using puppet is that the user must learn the puppet DSL language.

  24. Why is Continuous monitoring important?
    Continuous Monitoring helps us to have a time finding out of issues or weaknesses and immediate corrective action that helps minimize the monetary expenses of an organization. Continuous monitoring offers the solution that takes into account three operational fields known as:
    • continuous audit
    • continuous controls monitoring
    • continuous transaction inspection

  25. How to automate Testing in the DevOps lifecycle?
    In DevOps, developers are asked to perform all the changes made in the source code to an allocated repository. Continuous Integration tools like Jenkins will extract the code from this split repository each time a change is made in the code and execute it for Continuous Testing that is accomplished by tools like Selenium as explained. In this manner, any change in the code is thoroughly tested not like the traditional approach.

  26. What are the success factors for Continuous Integration?
    Here you have to mention the requirements for Continuous Integration. You could include the following points in your answer:
    • Maintain a code repository
    • Automate the build
    • Make the build self-testing
    • Everyone commits to the baseline every day
    • Every commit (to baseline) should be built
    • Keep the build fast
    • Test in a clone of the production environment

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